ChromosOmics - Database

Icon developed and provided by Leon B. Liehr, Jena, Germany

   - mFISH - whole chromosome paints (wcps) -    


mFISH with whole chromosome paints as probes is also used with some modifications and tricks in research.

radiobiology linkage/mapping interphase /3D
immunohisto Zoo-FISH FISH-midi alternatives


  • Abo-Zeid MA, Liehr T, El-Daly SM, Gamal-Eldeen AM, Glei M, Shabaka A, Bhatt S, Hamid A (2013) Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of the efficacy of photodynamic therapy by Indocyanine Green in breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Photodiagn Photodynam Therapy 10:194-202.
  • Guda K, Upender MB, Belinsky G, Flynn C, Nakanishi M, Marino JN, Ried T, Rosenberg DW (2004) Carcinogen-induced colon tumors in mice are chromosomally stable and are characterized by low-level microsatellite instability. Oncogene 23:3813-3821
  • Kim YM, Yang S, Xu W, Li S, Yang X (2008) Continuous in vitro exposure to low-dose genistein induces genomic instability in breast epithelial cells. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 186:78-84.
  • Knutsen T, Rao VK, Ried T, Mickley L, Schneider E, Miyake K, Ghadimi BM, Padilla-Nash H, Pack S, Greenberger L, Cowan K, Dean M, Fojo T, Bates S (2000) Amplification of 4q21-q22 and the MXR gene in independently derived mitoxantrone-resistant cell lines. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 27: 110-116.
  • Komae N, Hibino Y, Sugano N (1999) Analysis of micronuclei induced under hyperthermic conditions in human lymphocyte culture by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) methods. Yakugaku Zasshi 119: 763-772.
  • Lacoste S, Wiechec E, Dos Santos Silva AG, Guffei A, Williams G, Lowbeer M, Benedek K, Henriksson M, Klein G, Mai S (2010) Chromosomal rearrangements after ex vivo Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of human B cells. Oncogene 29: 503-515.
  • Loucas BD, Eberle RL, Durante M, Cornforth MN (2004) Complex chromatid-isochromatid exchanges following irradiation with heavy ions? Cytogenet Genome Res 104: 206-210.
  • Loucas BD, Eberle R, Bailey SM, Cornforth MN (2004) Influence of dose rate on the induction of simple and complex chromosome exchanges by gamma rays. Radiat Res 162:339-349.
  • McCormack SJ, Weaver Z, Deming S, Natarajan G, Torri J, Johnson MD, Liyanage M, Ried T, Dickson RB (1998) Myc/p53 interactions in transgenic mouse mammary development, tumorigenesis and chromosomal instability. Oncogene 16:2755-2766.
  • Melcher R, von Golitschek R, Steinlein C, Schindler D, Neitzel H, Kainer K, Schmid M, Hoehn H (2000) Spectral karyotyping of Werner syndrome fibroblast cultures. Cytogenet Cell Genet 91: 180-185.
  • Santiago F, Lima S, Pinheiro T, Silvestre RT, Otero UB, Tabalipa MM, Kosyakova N, Ornellas MH, Liehr T, Alves G. Benzene poisoning, clinical and blood abnormalities in two Brazilian female gas station attendants: two case reports. BMC Res Notes. 2017,10:52.
  • Samarth RM, Gandhi P, Maudar KK (2013) A retrospective review of cytogenetic studies on methyl isocyanate with special reference to the Bhopal gas tragedy: is the next generation also at risk? Int J Occup Med Environ Health 26:324-336.
  • Shen SX, Weaver Z, Xu X, Li C, Weinstein M, Chen L, Guan XY, Ried T, Deng CX (1998) A targeted disruption of the murine Brca1 gene causes gamma-irradiation hypersensitivity and genetic instability. Oncogene 17: 3115-3124.
  • Sumption ND, Goodhead DT, Anderson RM (2006) No increase in radiation-induced chromosome aberration complexity detected by m-FISH after culture in the presence of 5'-bromodeoxyuridine. Mutat Res 594:30-38
  • Wu H, Durante M, Furusawa Y, George K, Kawata T, Cucinotta FA (2003) M-FISH analysis of chromosome aberrations in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic iron ions in vitro. Adv Space Res 31:1537-1542


  • Anderson RM, Stevens DL, Goodhead DT (2002) M-FISH analysis shows that complex chromosome aberrations induced by {alpha}-particle tracks are cumulative products of localized rearrangements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99: 12167-12172.
  • Anderson RM, Sumption ND, Papworth DG, Goodhead DT (2006) Chromosome breakpoint distribution of damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes by densely ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 82:49-58
  • Anderson RM, Papworth DG, Stevens DL, Sumption ND, Goodhead DT (2006) Increased complexity of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations consistent with a mechanism of sequential formation. Cytogenet Genome Res 112: 35-44.
  • Balajee AS, Bertucci A, Taveras M, Brenner DJ (2014) Multicolour FISH analysis of ionising radiation induced micronucleus formation in human lymphocytes. Mutagenesis 29: 447-455.
  • Berardinelli F, De Vitis M, Nieri D, Cherubini R, De Nadal V, Gerardi S, Tanzarella C, Sgura A, Antoccia A (2015) mBAND and mFISH analysis of chromosomal aberrations and breakpoint distribution in chromosome 1 of AG01522 human fibroblasts that were exposed to radiation of different qualities. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 793: 55-63.
  • Braselmann H, Kulka U, Baumgartner A, Eder C, Müller I, Figel M, Zitzelsberger H (2005) SKY and FISH analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations: a comparison of whole and partial genome analysis. Mutat Res 578:124-133
  • Desmaze C, Pirzio LM, Blaise R, Mondello C, Giulotto E, Murnane JP, Sabatier L (2004) Interstitial telomeric repeats are not preferentially involved in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human cells. Cytogenet Genome Res 104:123-130.
  • Eĭdel'man IuA, Slanina SV, Sal'nikov IV, Andreev SG (2012) [Mechanistic modelling allows to assess pathways of DNA lesion interactions underlying chromosome aberration formation]. Genetika 48:1427-1436. Russian
  • Grandy I, Hardt T, Schmid M, Haaf T (2002) Effects of higher-order nuclear structure and Rad51 overexpression on radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements. Cytogenet Genome Res. 98: 265-269.
  • Greulich KM, Kreja L, Heinze B, Rhein AP, Weier HG, Bruckner M, Fuchs P, Molls M (2000) Rapid detection of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes and hematopoietic progenitor cells by mFISH. Mutat Res 452: 73-81.
  • Greulich-Bode KM, Zimmermann F, Müller WU, Pakisch B, Molls M, Würschmidt F (2012) Clinical, molecular- and cytogenetic analysis of a case of severe radio-sensitivity. Curr Genomics 13: 426-432.
  • Hartel C, Nasonova E, Fuss MC, Nikoghosyan AV, Debus J, Ritter S (2018) Persistence of radiation-induced aberrations in patients after radiotherapy with C-ions and IMRT. Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 13:57-63.
  • Hamasaki K, Kusunoki Y, Nakashima E, Takahashi N, Nakachi K, Nakamura N, Kodama Y (2009) Clonally expanded T lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors in vitro show no evidence of cytogenetic instability. Radiat Res 172:234-243.
  • Hande MP, Azizova TV, Burak LE, Khokhryakov VF, Geard CR, Brenner DJ (2005) Complex chromosome aberrations persist in individuals many years after occupational exposure to densely ionizing radiation: an mFISH study. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 44: 1-9.
  • Hieber L, Huber R, Bauer V, Schäffner Q, Braselmann H, Thomas G, Bogdanova T, Zitzelsberger H (2011) Chromosomal rearrangements in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas: evaluation by spectral karyotyping and automated interphase FISH. J Biomed Biotechnol 2011:693691.
  • Hu B, Zhu J, Zhou H, Hei TK (2013) No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblast after alpha particle irradiation. Adv Space Res 51:450-457.
  • Kuechler A, Neubauer S, Grabenbauer GG, Claussen U, Liehr T, Sauer R, Wendt TG (2002) Is 24-color FISH detection of in-vitro radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations suited to determine individual intrinsic radiosensitivity? Strahlenther Onkol 178: 209-215.
  • Livingston GK, Escalona M, Foster A, Balajee AS (2018) Persistent in vivo cytogenetic effects of radioiodine therapy: a 21-year follow-up study using multicolor FISH. J Radiat Res 21: 1-8.
  • Loucas BD, Durante M, Bailey SM, Cornforth MN (2013) Chromosome damage in human cells by γ rays, α particles and heavy ions: track interactions in basic dose-response relationships. Radiat Res 179:9-20.
  • Loucas BD (2019) Analysis of radiation-induced chromosome exchanges using combinatorial chromosome painting. Methods Mol Biol 1984:123-135.
  • Loucas BD, Cornforth MN (2013) The LET dependence of unrepaired chromosome damage in human cells: a break too far? Radiat Res 179:393-405.
  • Martín M, Terradas M, Hernández L, Genescà A (2014) γH2AX foci on apparently intact mitotic chromosomes: not signatures of misrejoining events but signals of unresolved DNA damage. Cell Cycle 13: 3026-3036.
  • Nieri D, Berardinelli F, Sgura A, Cherubini R, De Nadal V, Gerardi S, Tanzarella C, Antoccia A (2013) Cyogenetics effects in AG01522 human primary fibroblasts exposed to low doses of radiations with different quality. Int J Radiat Biol 89:698-707.
  • Nieri D, Berardinelli F, Antoccia A, Tanzarella C, Sgura A (2013) Comparison between two FISH techniques in the in vitro study of cytogenetic markers for low-dose X-ray exposure in human primary fibroblasts. Front Genet 4:141.
  • Polityko A, Khurs O, Rumyantseva N, Naumchik I, Kosyakova N, Tönnies H, Sperling K, Neitzel H, Weise A, Liehr T (2010) Two siblings with immunodeficiency, facial abnormalities and chromosomal instability without mutation in DNMT3B gene but liability towards malignancy; a new chromatin disorder delineation? Mol Cytogenet 3:5
  • Ponnaiya B, Suzuki M, Tsuruoka C, Uchihori Y, Wei Y, Hei TK (2011) Detection of chromosomal instability in bystander cells after Si490-ion irradiation. Radiat Res 176:280-290.
  • Pouzoulet F, Roch-Lefèvre S, Giraudet AL, Vaurijoux A, Voisin P, Buard V, Delbos M, Bourhis J, Voisin P, Roy L (2007) Monitoring translocations by M-FISH and three-color FISH painting techniques: a study of two radiotherapy patients. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 48:425-434
  • Rithidech KN, Honikel LM, Reungpatthanaphong P, Tungjai M, Golightly M, Whorton EB (2013) Effects of 100MeV protons delivered at 0.5 or 1cGy/min on the in vivo induction of early and delayed chromosomal damage. Mutat Res 756:127-140.
  • Schmitz S, Pinkawa M, Eble MJ, Kriehuber R (2013) Persisting ring chromosomes detected by mFISH in lymphocytes of a cancer patient-a case report. Mutat Res 756:158-164.
  • Shim G, Normil MD, Testard I, Hempel WM, Ricoul M, Sabatier L (2016) Comparison of individual radiosensitivity to γ-rays and carbon ions. Front Oncol 6: 137.
  • Szeles A, Joussineau S, Lewensohn R, Lagercrantz S, Larsson C (2006) Evaluation of spectral karyotyping (SKY) in biodosimetry for the triage situation following gamma irradiation. Int J Radiat Biol 82:87-96
  • Zitzelsberger H, Lehmann L, Hieber L, Weier HU, Janish C, Fung J, Negele T, Spelsberg F, Lengfelder E, Demidchik EP, Salassidis K, Kellerer AM, Werner M, Bauchinger M (1999) Cytogenetic changes in radiation-induced tumors of the thyroid. Cancer Res 59: 135-140.
  • Zitzelsberger H, Fung J, Janish C, McNamara G, Bryant PE, Riches AC, Weier HUG (1999) Spectral karyotyping (SKY) analysis of heritable effects of radiation-induced malignant transformation. SPIE Proc. 3605: 325-331.


  • Brink AA, Wiegant JC, Szuhai K, Tanke HJ, Kenter GG, Fleuren GJ, Schuuring E, Raap AK (2002) Simultaneous mapping of human papillomavirus integration sites and molecular karyotyping in short-term cultures of cervical carcinomas by using 49-color combined binary ratio labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization.Cancer Genet Cytogenet 134: 145-150.
  • Dunham I, Braden VV, Hilgenfeld E, Schuler G, Lash AE, Shen GL, Martelli M, Kuehl WM, Klausner RD, Ried T (2000) A systematic, high-resolution linkage of the cytogenetic and physical maps of the human genome. Nat Genet 24: 339-340.
  • Ye CJ, Lu W, Liu G, Bremer SW, Wang YA, Moens P, Hughes M, Krawetz SA, Heng HHQ (2001) The combination of SKY and specific loci detection with FISH or immunostaining. Cytogenet Cell Genet 93: 195-202.

Interphase archtiecture

  • Cornforth MN, Greulich-Bode KM, Loucas BD, Arsuaga J, Vazquez M, Sachs RK, Bruckner M, Molls M, Hahnfeldt P, Hlatky L, Brenner DJ (2002) Chromosomes are predominantly located randomly with respect to each other in interphase human cells. J Cell Biol 159: 237-244.
  • Cremer T, Cremer C (2001) Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells. Nat Rev Genet 2: 292-301.
  • Cremer M, Müller S, Solovei I, Cremer T (2008) 3D-fluorescent in situ hybridization and nuclear architecture. Medgen 20: 379-385 (German)
  • Cremer M, Grasser F, Lanctôt C, Müller S, Neusser M, Zinner R, Solovei I, Cremer T (2008) Multicolor 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization for imaging interphase chromosomes. Methods Mol Biol 463:205-239.
  • Dietzel S, Eils R, Satzler K, Bornfleth H, Jauch A, Cremer C, Cremer T (1998) Evidence against a looped structure of the inactive human X-chromosome territory. Exp Cell Res 240: 187-196.
  • Geigl JB, Uhrig S, Speicher MR (2006) Multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome karyotyping. Nat Protoc 1:1172-1184.
  • Hovhannisyan G, Aroutiounian R, Babayan N, Harutyunyan T, Liehr T (2016) Comparative analysis of individual chromosome involvement in micronuclei induced by mitomycin C and bleomycin in human leukocytes. Mol Cytogenet 9: 49.
  • Su JH, Zheng P, Kinrot SS, Bintu B, Zhuang X (2020) Genome-Scale imaging of the 3D organization and transcriptional activity of chromatin. Cell 182:1641-1659.e26.
  • Walter J, Joffe B, Bolzer A, Albiez H, Benedetti PA, Muller S, Speicher MR, Cremer T, Cremer M, Solovei I (2006) Towards many colors in FISH on 3D-preserved interphase nuclei. Cytogenet Genome Res 114:367-378.

mFISH and immunohistochemistry

  • Horsley SW, Colman S, McKinley M, Bateman CM, Jenney M, Chaplin T, Young BD, Greaves M, Kearney L (2008) Genetic lesions in a preleukemic aplasia phase in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 47:333-340.
  • Ye CJ, Lu W, Liu G, Bremer SW, Wang YA, Moens P, Hughes M, Krawetz SA, Heng HHQ (2001) The combination of SKY and specific loci detection with FISh or immunostaining. Cytogenet Cell Genet 93: 195-202.
  • Ye CJ, Stevens JB, Liu G, Ye KJ, Yang F, Bremer SW, Heng HH (2006) Combined multicolor-FISH and immunostaining. Cytogenet Genome Res 114:227-234.


  • Best RG, Diamond D, Crawford E, Grass FS, Janish C, Lear TL, Soenksen D, Szalay AA, Moore CM (1998) Baboon/human homologies examined by spectral karyotyping (SKY): a visual comparison. Cytogenet Cell Genet 82: 83-87.
  • Xiaobo F, Pinthong K, Mkrtchyan H, Siripiyasing P, Kosyakova N, Supiwong W, Tanomtong A, Chaveerach A, Liehr T, de Bello Cioffi M, Weise A (2013) First detailed reconstruction of the karyotype of Trachypithecus cristatus (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae). Mol Cytogenet 6:58.
  • Fatyol K, Illes K, Diamond DC, Janish C, Szalay AA (2000) Mer22-related sequence elements form pericentric repetitive DNA families in primates. Mol Gen Genet 262: 931-939.
  • de Oliveira EH, Neusser M, Pieczarka JC, Nagamachi C, Sbalqueiro IJ, Muller S (2005) Phylogenetic inferences of Atelinae (Platyrrhini) based on multi-directional chromosome painting in Brachyteles arachnoides, Ateles paniscus paniscus and Ateles b. marginatus. Cytogenet Genome Res 108: 183-190.
  • Moore CM, Janish C, Eddy CA, Hubbard GB, Leland MM, Rogers J (1999) Cytogenetic and fertility studies of a rheboon, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) x baboon (Papio hamadryas) cross: further support for a single karyotype nomenclature. Am J Phys Anthropol 110: 119-127.
  • Mrasek K, Heller A, Rubtsov N, Trifonov V, Starke H, Rocchi M, Claussen U, Liehr T (2001) Reconstruction of the female Gorilla gorilla karyotype by Zoo-FISH using 25-color FISH and multicolor banding (MCB). Cytogenet Cell Genet 93: 242-248.
  • Mrasek K, Heller A, Rubtsov N, Trifonov V, Starke H, Claussen U, Liehr T (2003) Detailed Hylobates lar karyotype defined by 25-color FISH and multicolor banding. Int J Mol Med 12: 139-146.
  • Neusser M, Stanyon R, Bigoni F, Wienberg J, Müller S (2001) Molecular cytotaxonomy of New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) -- comparative analysis of five species by multi-color chromosome painting gives evidence for a classification of Callimico goeldii within the family of Callitrichidae. Cytogenet Cell Genet 94: 206-215.
  • Neusser M, Munch M, Anzenberger G, Muller S (2005) Investigation of marmoset hybrids (Cebuella pygmaea x Callithrix jacchus) and related Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini) by cross-species chromosome painting and comparative genomic hybridization. Cytogenet Genome Res 108: 191-196.
  • Nie W, Rens W, Wang J, Yang F (2001) Conserved chromosome segments in Hylobates hoolock revealed by human and H. leucogenys paint probes.Cytogenet Cell Genet 92: 248-253.
  • Rens W, Yang F, O'Brien PC, Solanky N, Ferguson-Smith MA (2001) A classification efficiency test of spectral karyotyping and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization: Identification of chromosome homologies between Homo sapiens and Hylobates leucogenys. Genes Chr Cancer 31: 65-74.
  • Sangpakdee W, Tanomtong A, Fan X, Pinthong K, Weise A, Liehr T (2016) Application of multicolor banding combined with heterochromatic and locus-specific probes identify evolutionary conserved breakpoints in Hylobates pileatus. Mol Cytogenet 9: 17.
  • Sangpakdee W, Tanomtong A, Chaveerach A, Pinthong K, Trifonov V, Loth K, Hensel C, Liehr T, Weise A, Fan X (2018) Molecular cytogenetic analysis of one African and five Asian macaque species reveals identical karyotypes as in mandrill. Curr Genomics 19:207-215.
  • Sangpakdee W, Phimphan S, Liehr T, Fan X, Pinthong K, Patawang I, Tanomtong A (2016) Characterization of chromosomal rearrangements in pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) using multiplex-FISH technique. The Nucleus 59: 131-135.
  • Schröck E, du Manoir S, Veldman T, Schoell B, Wienberg J, Ferguson-Smith MA, Ning Y, Ledbetter DH, Bar-Am I, Soenksen D, Garini Y, Ried T (1996) Multicolor spectral karyotyping of human chromosomes. Science, 273:494-497.
  • Schröck E, Zschieschang P, O'Brien P, Helmrich A, Hardt T, Matthaei A, Stout-Weider K (2006) Spectral karyotyping of human, mouse, rat and ape chromosomes--applications for genetic diagnostics and research. Cytogenet Genome Res 114:199-221.
  • Stanyon R, Bruening R, Stone G, Shearin A, Bigoni F (2005) Reciprocal painting between humans, De Brazza's and patas monkeys reveals a major bifurcation in the Cercopithecini phylogenetic tree. Cytogenet Genome Res 108: 175-182.
  • Weise A, Kosyakova N, Voigt M, Aust N, Mrasek K, Löhmer S, Rubtsov N, Karamysheva T, Trifonov V, Hardekopf D, Jancuková , Pekova S, Wilhelm K, Liehr T, Fan X (2015) Comprehensive analyses of white handed gibbon chromosomes enables access to 92 evolutionary conserved breakpoints compared to the human genome. Cytogenet Genome Res 145:42-49.
  • Wienberg J, Stanyon R (1997) Comparative painting of mammalian chromosomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev 7: 784-791.
  • Wienberg J (2005) Fluorescence in situ hybridization to chromosomes as a tool to understand human and primate genome evolution. Cytogenet Genome Res 108:139-160.

FISH-midi or FISH-MD (microdissection)

  • Roberts I, Foster N, Nacheva E, Coleman N (2004) Paint-assisted microdissection-FISH: Rapid and simple mapping of translocation breakpoints in the embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell line RD. Cytometry A 58:177-184
  • Weimer J, Kiechle M, Arnold N (2000) FISH-microdissection (FISH-MD) analysis of complex chromosome rearrangements. Cytogenet Cell Genet 88: 114-118.
  • Weimer J, Koehler MR, Wiedemann U, Attermeyer P, Jacobsen A, Karow D, Kiechl M, Jonat W, Arnold N (2001) Highly comprehensive karyotype analysis by a combination of spectral karyotyping (SKY), microdissection, and reverse painting (SKY-MD). Chromosome Res 9: 395-402.
  • Weimer J, Cohen M, Wiedemann U, Heinrich U, Jonat W, Arnold N (2006) Proof of partial imbalances 6q and 11q due to maternal complex balanced translocation analyzed by microdissection of multicolor labeled chromosomes (FISH-MD) in a patient with Dandy-Walker variant. Cytogenet Genome Res 114: 235-239.

Alternatives to mFISH with human wcps

  • Ji Z, Zhang L (2012) Chromosomics: detection of numerical and structural alterations in all 24 human chromosomes simultaneously using a novel OctoChrome FISH assay. J Vis Exp. 2012 Feb 6;(60).
  • Joyce CA, Ross FM, Dennis NR, Wyre ND, Barber JC (1999) Multipaint FISH: a rapid and reliable way to define cryptic and complex abnormalities. Clin Genet 56: 192-199.
  • Ogilvie CM, Shemilt S, Davies AF, Weber-Hall S, Chuang C, Sundaresan V (2000) Characterization of a chromosomally complex lung cancer cell line using multiwell fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 117: 149-152.
  • Roberts I, Wienberg J, Nacheva E, Grace C, Griffin D, Coleman N (1999) Novel method for the production of multiple colour chromosome paints for use in karyotyping by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Genes Chr Cancer 25: 241-250.
  • Zhang L, Lan Q, Guo W, Hubbard AE, Li G, Rappaport SM, McHale CM, Shen M, Ji Z, Vermeulen R, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT (2011) Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) in workers exposed to an established leukemogen, benzene. Carcinogenesis 32:605-612.
  • Zhang L, Lan Q, Guo W, Li G, Yang W, Hubbard AE, Vermeulen R, Rappaport SM, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT (2005) Use of OctoChrome fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect specific aneuploidy among all 24 chromosomes in benzene-exposed workers. Chem Biol Interact 153-154:117-122.