ChromosOmics - Database

Icon by Leon Liehr              

                                     - mFISH - OTHERS-                                   


According to the used definition of mFISH as the simultaneous utilization of at least three different ligands or fluorochromes for the specific labeling of DNA (excluding the counterstain); thus, somemore approaches have to be mentioned in human, animals, plants and bacteria.

Human 4-col-CGH
Human-EM & FISH
Human-others plants
animals (no mice) murine WCP murine CBC murine mcb

mFISH - HUMAN “Four”-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)

To come to a more standardized CGH procedure Karhu and coworkers proposed the introduction of a second control DNA labeled with a third fluorochrome.
  • Karhu R, Rummukainen J, Lorch T, Isola J (1999) Four-color CGH: a new method for quality control of comparative genomic hybridization. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 24: 112-118.
  • Kytölä S, Rummukainen J, Nordgren A, Karhu R, Farnebo F, Isola J, Larsson C (2000) Chromosomal alterations in 15 breast cancer cell lines by comparative genomic hybridization and spectral karyotyping. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 28: 308-317
  • Rummukainen J, Kytola S, Karhu R, Farnebo F, Larsson C, Isola JJ (2001) Aberrations of chromosome 8 in 16 breast cancer cell lines by comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and spectral karyotyping. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 126: 1-7.

mFISH - HUMAN Electron microscopy and ISH

  • Fetni R, Drouin R, Lemieux N, Messier PE, Richer CL (1991) Simultaneous visualization of chromosome bands and hybridization signal using colloidal-gold labeling in electron microscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 88:10916-10920.
  • Li CB, Wu M, Margitich IS, Davidson N (1986) Gene mapping on human metaphase chromosomes by in situ hybridization with 3H, 35S, and 32P labeled probes and transmission electron microscopy. Chromosoma 93:305-312.
mFISH - HUMAN Other "specials"

  • Bailey SM, Williams ES, Cornforth MN, Goodwin EH (2010) Chromosome Orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization or strand-specific FISH. Methods Mol Biol 659:173-183.
  • Behnam F, Vilcinskas A, Wagner M, Stoecker K (2012) A straightforward DOPE (double labeling of oligonucleotide probes)-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) method for simultaneous multicolor detection of six microbial populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 78: 5138-5142.
  • Donat M, Louis A, Kreskowski K, Ziegler M, Weise A, Schreyer I, Liehr T (2017) X-autosome and X-Y translocations in female carriers: X-chromosome inactivation easily detectable by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU). Balk J Med Genet 20: 87-90.
  • Hopman AH, Claessen S, Speel EJ (1997) Multi-colour brightfield in situ hybridisation on tissue sections. Histochem Cell Biol 108: 291-298.
  • König K, Riemann I, Fischer P, Halbhuber KJ (2000) Multiplex FISH and three-dimensional DNA imaging with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Histochem Cell Biol. 114: 337-345.
  • König K, Göhlert A, Liehr T, Loncarevic IF, Riemann I (2000) Two-Photon Multicolor FISH: a versatile technique to detect specific sequences with in single DNA molecules in cells and tissues. Single Molecules 1: 41-51. Internet:
  • Reid A, Gribble SM, Andrews KM, Green AR, Nacheva EP (2001) Chromosome band specific FISH probes allow improved detection of terminal translocations in leukaemic metaphases. Leukemia 15: 860-861.
  • Samiotaki M, Kwiatkowski M, Ylitalo N, Landegren U (1997) Seven-color time-resolved fluorescence hybridization analysis of human papilloma virus types. Anal Biochem 253: 156-161.
Other mFISH techniques in plants

  • Berr A, Pecinka A, Meister A, Kreth G, Fuchs J, Blattner FR, Lysak MA, Schubert I (2006) Chromosome arrangement and nuclear architecture but not centromeric sequences are conserved between Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. Plant J 48:771-783.
  • Deng H, Xiang S, Guo Q, Jin W, Cai Z, Liang G (2019) Molecular cytogenetic analysis of genome-specific repetitive elements in Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan. and its taxonomic implications. BMC Plant Biol 19:77.
  • Deng H, Cai Z, Xiang S, Guo Q, Huang W, Liang G (2019) Karyotype analysis of diploid and spontaneously occurring tetraploid blood orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] using multicolor FISH with repetitive DNA sequences as probes. Front Plant Sci 10:331.
  • He F, Wang Y, Bao Y, Ma Y, Wang X, Li X, Wang H (2017) Chromosomal constitutions of five wheat Elytrigia elongata partial amphiploids as revealed by GISH, multicolor GISH and FISH. Comp Cytogenet 11: 525-540.
  • Hoang PNT, Michael TP, Gilbert S, Chu P, Motley ST, Appenroth KJ, Schubert I, Lam E (2018) Generating a high-confidence reference genome map of the Greater Duckweed by integration of cytogenomic, optical mapping, and Oxford Nanopore technologies. Plant J 96:670-684.
  • Karafiátová M, Bartoš J, Kopecký D, Ma L, Sato K, Houben A, Stein N, Doležel J (2013) Mapping nonrecombining regions in barley using multicolor FISH. Chromosome Res 21:739-751.
  • Kato A, Lamb JC, Birchler JA (2004) Chromosome painting using repetitive DNA sequences as probes for somatic chromosome identification in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13554-13559.
  • Kato A, Vega JM, Han F, Lamb JC, Birchler JA (2005) Advances in plant chromosome identification and cytogenetic techniques. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:148-154.
  • Kus A, Kwasniewska J, Hasterok R (2017) Brachypodium distachyon - A useful model in the qualification of mutagen-induced micronuclei using multicolor FISH. PLoS One 12:e0170618.
  • Lysak MA, Berr A, Pecinka A, Schmidt R, McBreen K, Schubert I (2006) Mechanisms of chromosome number reduction in Arabidopsis thaliana and related Brassicaceae species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S U 103:5224-5229.
  • Mandáková T, Lysak MA (2008) Chromosomal Phylogeny and Karyotype Evolution in x=7 Crucifer Species (Brassicaceae). Plant Cell 20:2559-2570.
  • Qu M, Li K, Han Y, Chen L, Li Z, Han Y (2017) Integrated karyotyping of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with oligopaint FISH probes. Cytogenet Genome Res 153:158-164.
  • Paesold S, Borchardt D, Schmidt T, Dechyeva D (2012) A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution. Plant J 72: 600-611.
  • Rajasarkka J (2015) Treding in Mendels genomic footsteps - plant genomics in Brno, Czech Republic. Lab Times, 5:34-35.
  • Staiber W, Schiffkowski C (2000) Structural evolution of the germ line-limited chromosomes in Acricotopus. Chromosoma 109: 343-349.
  • Szinay D, Chang SB, Khrustaleva L, Peters S, Schijlen E, Bai Y, Stiekema WJ, van Ham RC, de Jong H, Klein Lankhorst RM (2008) High-resolution chromosome mapping of BACs using multi-colour FISH and pooled-BAC FISH as a backbone for sequencing tomato chromosome 6. Plant J 56:627-637.
  • Tang X, Szinay D, Lang C, Ramanna MS, van der Vossen EA, Datema E, Lankhorst RK, de Boer J, Peters SA, Bachem C, Stiekema W, Visser RG, de Jong H, Bai Y (2008) Cross-species bacterial artificial chromosome-fluorescence in situ hybridization painting of the tomato and potato chromosome 6 reveals undescribed chromosomal rearrangements. Genetics 180:1319-1328.

mFISH in animal (apart from mice)

  • Buwe A, Steinlein C, Koehler MR, Bar-Am I, Katzin N, Schmid M (2003) Multicolor spectral karyotyping of rat chromosomes. Cytogenet Genome Res 103: 163-168.
  • Courtay-Cahen C, Griffiths LA, Hudson R, Starkey M (2007) Extensive coloured identification of dog chromosomes to support karyotype studies: the colour code. Cytogenet Genome Res 116:198-204.
  • García-Angulo A, Merlo MA, Rodríguez ME, Portela-Bens S, Liehr T, Rebordinos L (2019) Genome and phylogenetic analysis of genes involved in the immune system of Solea senegalensis - Potential applications in aquaculture. Front Genet 10:529.
  • Griffin DK, Haberman F, Masabanda J, O'Brien P, Bagga M, Sazanov A, Smith J, Burt DW, Ferguson-Smith M, Wienberg J (1999) Micro- and macrochromosome paints generated by flow cytometry and microdissection: tools for mapping the chicken genome. Cytogenet Cell Genet 87: 278-281.
  • Merlo MA, Iziga R, Portela S, Cross I, Kosyakova N, Liehr T, Manchado M, Rebordinos L (2017) Analysis of the histone cluster in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): evidence for a divergent evolution of two canonical histone clusters. Genome 60: 441-453.
  • Milne SB, Hoather T, O'Brien PCM, Yang F, Ferguson-Smith MA, Dobson J, Sargan D (2004) Karyotype of canine soft tissue sarcomas: a multi-colour, multi-species approach to canine chromosome painting. Chr Research 12: 825-835.
  • Pauciullo A, Perucatti A, Iannuzzi A, Incarnato D, Genualdo V, Di Berardino D, Iannuzzi L (2014) Development of a sequential multicolor-FISH approach with 13 chromosome-specific painting probes for the rapid identification of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) chromosomes. J Appl Genet 55: 397-401
  • Portela-Bens S, Merlo MA, Rodríguez ME, Cross I, Manchado M, Kosyakova N, LiehrT, Rebordinos L (2017) Integrated gene mapping and synteny studies give insights into the evolution of a sex proto-chromosome in Solea senegalensis. Chromosoma 126: 261-277.
  • Rutten KB, Pietsch C, Olek K, Neusser M, Beukeboom LW, Gadau J (2004) Chromosomal anchoring of linkage groups and identification of wing size QTL using markers and FISH probes derived from microdissected chromosomes in Nasonia (Pteromalidae: Hymenoptera).Cytogenet Genome Res 105:126-133.
  • Schröck E, Zschieschang P, O'Brien P, Helmrich A, Hardt T, Matthaei A, Stout-Weider K (2006) Spectral karyotyping of human, mouse, rat and ape chromosomes--applications for genetic diagnostics and research. Cytogenet Genome Res 114:199-221.
  • Shibata F, Sahara K, Naito Y, Yasukochi Y (2009) Reprobing multicolor fish preparations in lepidopteran chromosome. Zoolog Sci 26:187-190
  • Trifonov VA, Stanyon R, Nesterenko AI, Fu B, Perelman PL, O'Brien PC, Stone G, Rubtsova NV, Houck ML, Robinson TJ, Ferguson-Smith MA, Dobigny G, Graphodatsky AS, Yang F (2008) Multidirectional cross-species painting illuminates the history of karyotypic evolution in Perissodactyla. Chromosome Res 16:89-107.

mFISH using mouse whole chromosome painting (wcp) probes

  • AbouAlaiwi WA, Ratnam S, Booth RL, Shah JV, Nauli SM (2011) Endothelial cells from humans and mice with polycystic kidney disease are characterized by polyploidy and chromosome segregation defects through survivin down-regulation. Hum Mol Genet 20:354-367.
  • AbouAlaiwi WA, Rodriguez I, Nauli SM (2012) Spectral karyotyping to study chromosome abnormalities in humans and mice with polycystic kidney disease. J Vis Exp 2012 Feb 3;(60). pii: 3887. doi: 10.3791/3887.
  • Abrahams BS, Chong AC, Nisha M, Milette D, Brewster DA, Berry ML, Muratkhodjaev F, Mai S, Rajcan-Separovic E, Simpson EM (2003) Metaphase FISHing of transgenic mice recommended: FISH and SKY define BAC-mediated balanced translocation. Genesis 36: 134-141.
  • Adler ID, Gonda H, Hrabe de Angelis M, Jentsch I, Otten IS, Speicher MR (2004) Heritable translocations induced by dermal exposure of male mice to acrylamide. Cytogenet Genome Res 104: 271-276.
  • Artandi SE, Chang S, Lee S-L, Alson S, Gottlieb GJ, Chin L, DePinho RA (2000) Telomere dysfunction promotes non-reciprocal translocations and epithelial cancers in mice. Nature 406: 641-644.
  • Barlow C, Hirotsune S, Paylor R, Liyanage M, Eckhaus M, Collins F, Shiloh Y, Crawley JN, Ried T, Tagle D, Wynshaw-Boris A (1996) Atm-deficient mice: a paradigm of ataxia telangiectasia. Cell 86:159-171.
  • Bayani J, Squire JA (2001) Advances in the detection of chromosomal aberrations using spectral karyotyping. Clin Genet 59: 65-73.
  • Benedek K, Chudoba I, Klein G, Wiener F, Mai S (2004) Rearrangements of the telomeric region of mouse chromosome 11 in Pre-B ABL/MYC cells revealed by mBANDing, spectral karyotyping, and fluorescence in-situ hybridization with a subtelomeric probe. Chr Res 12: 777-785.
  • Chen Q, Shi X, Rudolph C, Yu Y, Zhang D, Zhao X, Mai S, Wang G, Schlegelberger B, Shi Q (2011) Recurrent trisomy and Robertsonian translocation of chromosome 14 in murine iPS cell lines. Chromosome Res 19:857-868.
  • Coleman AE, Schrock E, Weaver Z, du Manoir S, Yang F, Ferguson-Smith MA, Ried T, Janz S (1997) Previously hidden chromosome aberrations in T(12;15)-positive BALB/c plasmacytomas uncovered by multicolor spectral karyotyping. Cancer Res 57:4585-4592.
  • Coleman AE, Forest ST, McNeil N, Kovalchuk AL, Ried T, Janz S (1999) Cytogenetic analysis of the bipotential murine pre-B cell lymphoma, P388, and its derivative macrophage-like tumor, P388D1, using SKY and CGH. Leukemia 13:1592-1600.
  • Coleman AE, Kovalchuk AL, Janz S, Palini A, Ried T (1999) Jumping translocation breakpoint regions lead to amplification of rearranged Myc. Blood 93:4442-4444.
  • Coleman AE, Ried T, Janz S (1999) Recurrent non-reciprocal translocations of chromosome 5 in primary T(12;15)-positive BALB/c plasmacytomas. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 246: 175-180; discussion 181.
  • Coleman AE, Ried T, Janz S (2000) Chromosomes 1 and 5 harbor plasmacytoma progressor genes in mice. Genes, Chr Cancer 29: 70-74.
  • Diaw L, Siwarski D, Coleman A, Kim J, Jones GM, Dighiero G, Huppi K (2000) Restricted Immunoglobulin Variable Region (Ig V) Gene Expression Accompanies Secondary Rearrangements of Light Chain Ig V Genes in Mouse Plasmacytomas. J Exp Med 190: 1405-1415.
  • Difilippantonio MJ, Zhu J, Chen HT, Meffre E, Nussenzweig MC, Max EE, Ried T, Nussenzweig A (2000) DNA repair protein Ku80 suppresses chromosomal aberrations and malignant transformation. Nature 404: 510-514.
  • Dobbernack G, Meinl W, Schade N, Florian S, Wend K, Voigt I, Himmelbauer H, Gross M, Liehr T, Glatt H. (2011) Altered tissue distribution of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-DNA adducts in mice transgenic for human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2. Carcinogenesis 32:1734-1740.
  • Dozortsev D, Coleman A, Nagy P, Diamond MP, Ermilov A, Weier U, Liyanage M, Ried T (2000) Nucleoli in a pronuclei-stage mouse embryo are represented by major satellite DNA of interconnecting chromosomes. Fertil Steril 73: 366-371.
  • Dunn KL, He S, Wark L, Delcuve GP, Sun JM, Yu Chen H, Mai S, Davie JR (2009) Increased genomic instability and altered chromosomal protein phosphorylation timing in HRAS-transformed mouse fibroblasts. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 48:397-409.
  • Ferguson DO, Sekiguchi JM, Chang S, Frank KM, Gao Y, DePinho RA, Alt FW (2000) The nonhomologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair is required for genomic stability and the suppression of translocations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 6630-6633.
  • Fournier C, Zahnreich S, Kraft D, Friedrich T, Voss KO, Durante M, Ritter S (2012) The fate of a normal human cell traversed by a single charged particle. Sci Rep 2:643
  • Froenicke L, Anderson LK, Wienberg J, Ashley T (2002) Male mouse recombination maps for each autosome identified by chromosome painting. Am J Hum Genet 71: 1353-1368.
  • Gao Y, Ferguson DO, Xie W, Manis JP, Sekiguchi J, Frank KM, Chaudhuri J, Horner J, DePinho RA, Alt FW (2000) Interplay of p53 and DNA-repair protein XRCC4 in tumorigenesis, genomic stability and development. Nature 404: 897-900.
  • Guda K, Upender MB, Belinsky G, Flynn C, Nakanishi M, Marino JN, Ried T, Rosenberg DW (2004) Carcinogen-induced colon tumors in mice are chromosomally stable and are characterized by low-level microsatellite instability. Oncogene 23: 3813-3821.
  • Guo J, Jauch A, Heidi HG, Schoell B, Erz D, Schrank M, Janssen JW (2005) Multicolor karyotype analyses of mouse embryonic stem cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 41:278-283
  • Guttenbach M, Steinlein C, Engel W, Schmid M (2001) Cytogenetic characterization of the TM4 mouse Sertoli cell line. I. Conventional banding techniques, FISH and SKY. Cytogenet Cell Genet 4: 71-78.
  • Hao LY, Greider CW (2004) Genomic instability in both wild-type and telomerase null MEFs. Chromosoma 113: 62-68.
  • Hardt T, Himmelbauer H, Mann W, Ropers H, Haaf T (1999) Towards identification of individual homologous chromosomes: comparative genomic hybridization and spectral karyotyping discriminate between paternal and maternal euchromatin in Mus musculus x M. spretus interspecific hybrids. Cytogenet Cell Genet 86: 187-193.
  • Hassold T, Sherman S, Hunt P (2000) Counting cross-overs: characterizing meiotic recombination in mammals. Hum Mol Genet 9: 2409-2419.
  • Heng HH, Liu G, Lu W, Bremer S, Ye CJ, Hughes M, Moens P (2001) Spectral karyotyping (SKY) of mouse meiotic chromosomes. Genome 44: 293-298.
  • Hemann MT, Strong MA, Hao LY, Greider CW (2001) The shortest telomere, not average telomere length, is critical for cell viability and chromosome stability. Cell 107:67-77.
  • Jentsch I, Adler ID, Carter NP, Speicher MR (2001)Karyotyping mouse chromosomes by multiplex-FISH (M-FISH). Chromosome Res 9:211-214.
  • Jentsch I, Geigl J, Klein CA, Speicher MR (2003) Seven-fluorochrome mouse M-FISH for high resolution analysis of intrachromosomal rearrangements. Cytogenet Genome Res 103: 84-88.
  • Kotchetkov R, Cinatl J, Blaheta R, Vogel JU, Karaskova J, Squire J, Hernaiz Driever P, Klingebiel T, Cinatl J Jr. (2003) Development of resistance to vincristine and doxorubicin in neuroblastoma alters malignant properties and induces additional karyotype changes: a preclinical model. Int J Cancer 104:36-43.
  • Langer S, Jentsch I, Gangnus R, Yan H, Lengauer C, Speicher MR (2001) Facilitating haplotype analysis by fully automated analysis of all chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cell lines.Cytogenet Cell Genet 93:11-15.
  • Lavoie J, Carter R, Drouin R, Lebel M (2005) Increased frequency of multiradial chromosome structures in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking functional Werner syndrome protein and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 156:134-143.
  • Liu G, Lu W, Bremer S, Hameister H, Schreiner B, Hughes M, Heng HH (2000) Spectral karyotyping of mouse cell line WMP2. Cytogenet Cell Genet 90: 271-274.
  • Liyanage M, Coleman A, du Manoir S, Veldman T, McCormack S, Dickson RB, Barlow C, Wynshaw-Boris A, Janz S, Wienberg J, Ferguson-Smith MA, Schrock E, Ried T (1996) Multicolour spectral karyotyping of mouse chromosomes. Nat Genet14: 312-315.
  • Matsui S, Sait S, Jones CA, Nowak N, Gross KW (2002) Rapid localization of transgenes in mouse chromosomes with a combined Spectral karyotyping/FISH technique. Mamm Genome 13: 680-685.
  • McCormack SJ, Weaver Z, Deming S, Natarajan G, Torri J, Johnson MD, Liyanage M, Ried T, Dickson RB (1998) Myc/p53 interactions in transgenic mouse mammary development, tumorigenesis and chromosomal instability. Oncogene 16: 2755-2766.
  • M'kacher R, Farace F, Bennaceur-Griscelli A, Violot D, Clausse B, Dossou J, Valent A, Parmentier C, Ribrag V, Bosq J, Carde P, Turhan AG, Bernheim A (2003) Blastoid mantle cell lymphoma: evidence for nonrandom cytogenetic abnormalities additional to t(11;14) and generation of a mouse model. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 143: 32-38.
  • McNeil N, Kim JS, Ried T, Janz S (2005) Extraosseous IL-6 transgenic mouse plasmacytoma sometimes lacks Myc-activating chromosomal translocation. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 43:137-146.
  • Nakano M, Kodama Y, Ohtaki K, Nakamura N (2012) Translocations in spleen cells from adult mice irradiated as fetuses are infrequent, but often clonal in nature. Radiat Res 178:600-603.
  • Padilla-Nash HM, Barenboim-Stapleton L, Difilippantonio MJ, Ried T (2006) Spectral karyotyping analysis of human and mouse chromosomes. Nat Protoc 1: 3129-3142.
  • Padilla-Nash HM, Hathcock K, McNeil NE, Mack D, Hoeppner D, Ravin R, Knutsen T, Yonescu R, Wangsa D, Dorritie K, Barenboim L, Hu Y, Ried T (2012) Spontaneous transformation of murine epithelial cells requires the early acquisition of specific chromosomal aneuploidies and genomic imbalances. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1:353-374.
  • Pathak R, Koturbash I, Hauer-Jensen M (2017) Detection of inter-chromosomal stable aberrations by multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) in irradiated mice. J Vis Exp 119, doi: 10.3791/55162.
  • Petiniot LK, Weaver Z, Barlow C, Shen R, Eckhaus M, Steinberg SM, Ried T, Wynshaw-Boris A, Hodes RJ (2000) Recombinase-activating gene (RAG) 2-mediated V(D)J recombination is not essential for tumorigenesis in Atm-deficient mice. PNAS 97: 6664-6669.
  • Rao PH, Zhao S, Zhao YJ, Yu A, Rainusso N, Trucco M, Allen-Rhoades W, Satterfield L, Fuja D, Borra VJ, Man TK, Donehower LA, Yustein JT (2015) Coamplification of Myc/Pvt1 and homozygous deletion of Nlrp1 locus are frequent genetics changes in mouse osteosarcoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 54:796-808.
  • Rehen SK, McConnell MJ, Kaushal D, Kingsbury MA, Yang AH, Chun J (2001) Chromosomal variation in neurons of the developing and adult mammalian nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 13361-13366.
  • Resor L, Bowen TJ, Wynshaw-Boris A (2001) Unraveling human cancer in mouse: recent refinements to modeling and analysis. Hum Mol Genet 10: 669-675.
  • Ried T, Liyanage M, du Manoir S, Heselmeyer K, Auer G, Macville M, Schröck E (1997) Tumor cytogenetics revisited: comparative genomic hybridization and spectral karyotyping. J Mol Med 75: 801-814.
  • Rudolph C, Schlegelberger B (2009) Spectral karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization of murine cells. Methods Mol Biol 506:453-466.
  • Rudolph C, Hegazy AN, von Neuhoff N, Steinemann D, Schrock E, Stripecke R, Klein C, Schlegelberger B (2005) Cytogenetic characterization of a BCR-ABL transduced mouse cell line. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 161:51-56.
  • Rudolph C, Bittner C, Feller AC, Merz H, Schlegelberger B (2006) ytogenetic characteristics of a murine in vitro model for the human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Cytogenet Genome Res 114:292-295.
  • Sargent LM, Ensell MX, Ostvold AC, Baldwin KT, Kashon ML, Lowry DT, Senft JR, Jefferson AM, Johnson RC, Li Z, Tyson FL, Reynolds SH (2008) Chromosomal changes in high- and low-invasive mouse lung adenocarcinoma cell strains derived from early passage mouse lung adenocarcinoma cell strains. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 233:81-91.
  • Sawyer JR, Binz RL, Wang J, Moore MM (2006) Multicolor spectral karyotyping of the L5178Y Tk+/- -3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cell line. Environ Mol Mutagen 47: 127-131.
  • Schmid M, Steinlein C, Winking H (2017) Multicolor spectral analyses of mitotic and meiotic mouse chromosomes involved in multiple Robertsonian translocations. II. The NMRI/CD and CD/TA hybrid strains. Cytogenet Genome Res 151:18-26.
  • Schröck E, Padilla-Nash H (2000) Spectral karyotyping and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization reveal new tumor-specific chromosomal aberrations. Semin Hematol 37:334-347.
  • Schröck E, Zschieschang P, O'Brien P, Helmrich A, Hardt T, Matthaei A, Stout-Weider K (2006) Spectral karyotyping of human, mouse, rat and ape chromosomes--applications for genetic diagnostics and research. Cytogenet Genome Res 114:199-221.
  • Shen SX, Weaver Z, Xu X, Li C, Weinstein M, Chen L, Guan XY, Ried T, Deng CX (1998) A targeted disruption of the murine Brca1 gene causes gamma-irradiation hypersensitivity and genetic instability. Oncogene 17:3115-3124.
  • Weaver ZA, McCormack SJ, Liyanage M, du Manoir S, Coleman A, Schrock E, Dickson RB, Ried T (1999) A recurring pattern of chromosomal aberrations in mammary gland tumors of MMTV-cmyc transgenic mice. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 25: 251-260.
  • Wiegant J, van Hall T, van der Burg M, Colombo M, Tanke HJ, Offringa R, Rosenberg C (2002) Application of multicolor fluorescenze in situ hybridization analysis for detection of cross-contamination and in vitro progression in commonly used murine tumor cells. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 139: 52-56
  • Wiener F, Kuschak TI, Ohno S, Mai S (1999) Deregulated expression of c-Myc in a translocation-negative plasmacytoma on extrachromosomal elements that carry IgH and myc genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96: 13967-13972.
  • Xu X, Weaver Z, Linke SP, Li C, Gotay J, Wang XW, Harris CC, Ried T, Deng CX (1999) Centrosome amplification and a defective G2-M cell cycle checkpoint induce genetic instability in BRCA1 exon 11 isoform-deficient cells. Mol Cell 3:389-395.
  • Ye CJ, Lu W, Liu G, Bremer SW, Wang YA, Moens P, Hughes M, Krawetz SA, Heng HH (2001) The combination of SKY and specific loci detection with FISH or immunostaining. Cytogenet Cell Genet 93: 195-202.
  • Yu VPCC, Koehler M, Steinlein C, Schmid M, Hanakahi LA, van Gool AJ, West SC, Venkitaraman AR (2000) Gross chromosomal rearrangements and genetic exchange between nonhomologous chromosomes following BRCA2 inactivation. Genes & Development 14: 1400-1406.
  • Zimonjic DB, Zhang H, Shan Z, Factor V, Trent J, Thorgeirsson SS, Popescu NC (2001) DNA amplification associated with double minutes originating from chromosome 19 in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma.Cytogenet Cell Genet 93:114-116.
  • Zimonjic DB, Kato Y, Ying H, Popescu NC, Cheng SY (2005) Chromosomal aberrations in cell lines derived from thyroid tumors spontaneously developed in TRbetaPV/PV mice. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 161:104-109.
  • Zimonjic DB, Ullmannova-Benson V, Factor VM, Thorgeirsson SS, Popescu NC (2009) Recurrent and nonrandom DNA copy number and chromosome alterations in Myc transgenic mouse model for hepatocellular carcinogenesis: implications for human disease. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 191:17-26.
FISH using mouse locus specific probes

  • Henegariu O, Artan S, Greally JM, Chen X-N, Korenberg JR, Vance GH, Stubbs L, Bray-Ward Pand, Ward DC (2001) Cryptic translocation identification in human and mouse using several telomeric multiplex FISH (TM-FISH) strategies. Lab Invest 81: 483-491.
  • Henegariu O, Dunai J, Chen XN, Korenberg JR, Ward DC, Greally JM (2001) A triple color FISH technique for mouse chromosome identification. Mamm Genome 12: 462-465.
  • Liechty MC, Carpio CM, Aytay S, Clase AC, Puschus KL, Sims KR, Davis LM, Hozier JC (1999) Hybridization-based karyotyping of mouse chromosomes: hybridization-bands. Cytogenet Cell Genet 86: 34-38 (one color-FISH).
  • Liechty MC, Clase AC, Puschus KL, Aytay S, Carpio CM, Hall BK, Hozier JC (2000) Mouse linkage cytogenetics (L-C) probes. Cytogenet Cell Genet 88: 163-167(one color-FISH).

FISH in bacteria

  • Lukumbuzya M, Schmid M, Pjevac P, Daims H (2019) A multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization approach using an extended set of fluorophores to visualize microorganisms. Front Microbiol 10:1383.
  • Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Gille C, Reißhauer A, Göktas O, Krüger M, Neuhaus J, Schrödl W (2017) Impact of humic acids on the colonic microbiome in healthy volunteers. World J Gastroenterol 23:885-890.