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Icons developed and provided by Leon B. Liehr, Jena, Germany




Created by Dr. Thomas Liehr (PhD),
affiliation: Institute of Human Genetics, 07740 Jena, Germany;


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basics and literature on multicolor
fluorescence in situ hybridization application


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small supernumerary
marker chromosomes


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uniparental disomy

linked via

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link helpful for diagnostics:







(adapted from OMIM -

To assure the integrity of information on these three webpages (, http://sSMC-tl/sSMC.html, http://UPD-tl/UPD-tl.html;, we reserve the right to monitor system access if malicious actions are taken to disable our on-line services or intentionally gain unauthorized access to the three above mentioned databases.

Disclaimer of Liability

For documents and information available from these three databases the author does not warrant or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information disclosed.

Disclaimer of Endorsement

General -- The author does not necessarily agree with opinions of authors of articles cited on these three webpages.

External Links -- Some web pages may provide links to other internet sites only for the convenience of World Wide Web users. The author is not responsible for the availability or content of these external sites, nor does the author endorse, warrant or guarantee the products, services or information described or offered at these other internet sites.

Medical Information

It is not the intention of the author to provide specific medical advice, but rather to provide users with information to better understand their health and their diagnosed disorders. Specific medical advice will not be provided, and the author urges you to consult with a qualified physician for diagnosis and for answers to your personal questions.
For sSMC-page see more specific disclaimer here.

This page is can either be directly called via or via This shows the close link of this page to the University Clinic Jena. The disclaimer of that page is also valid for this presence and can be found at